Chuyên đề: THE INVERSION (ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG TIẾNG ANH)

Tháng Mười Hai 11, 2018 7:56 sáng

 

 

 

  1. KIẾN THỨC CƠ BẢN
  2. A. Định nghĩa

Trong một số trường hợp các phó từ không đứng ở vị trí bình thường của nó mà đảo lên đứng ở đầu câu nhằm nhấn mạnh vào hành động của chủ ngữ. Người ta gọi đó là câu đảo ngữ. Trong trường hợp đó ngữ pháp sẽ thay đổi, đằng sau phó từ đứng đầu câu là trợ động từ rồi mới đến chủ ngữ và động từ chính.

Ví dụ:

Little did I know that he was a compulsive liar.

At no time (= never) did I say I would accept late homework.

Để nhấn mạnh ý nào trong câu mà mình muốn diễn đạt, ta dùng phép đảo ngữ. Thông thường, phép đảo ngữ được thực hiện bằng cách đưa một trạng từ hoặc một cụm trạng ngữ ra đầu câu, đồng thời đảo trợ dộng từ hay động từ khiếm khuyết lên trước chủ ngữ hoặc tự dộng thêm trợ động từ “DO/ DOES” cho câu ở thì hiện tại hay “DID” cho câu ở thì quá khứ.

V + S + V + O

Cấu trúc của câu nhấn mạnh bắt đầu bằng: Only, Only by, Never, Until, Not until, Not only, No sooner, In no circumstances (chẳng trong trường hợp nào),

in no where else(chẳng có ở một nơi nào khác)

  • No longer, Only when (chỉ khi)…

 

B.Nội dung

  1. 1. Câu đảo ngữ có chứa trạng từ phủ định

1.1.  Nhóm từ “rarely, seldom, never”

Câu đảo ngữ chứa những trạng từ này thường được dùng với động từ ở dạng hoàn thành hay động từ khuyết thiếu và có thể chứa so sánh hơn.

E.g: We can never live without air and water.

Never can we live without air and water.

(Không bao giờ chúng ta có thể sống được nếu không có không khí và nước).

Eg: She never eats out

  • Never does she eat out.

Never have I been more insulted! (Chưa bao giờ tôi bị lăng mạ hơn thế).

Never in her life had she experienced this exhilarating emotion.

Seldom has he seen anything stranger.

(Hiếm khi anh ấy nhìn thấy một cái gì kì lạ hơn thế).

Seldom have I seen him looking so miserable.

 

1.2.  Nhóm từ “hardly, scarcely, no sooner, barely”

Câu đảo ngữ chứa trạng ngữ này thường được dùng để diễn đạt một chuỗi các sự kiện xảy ra trong quá khứ.

Ví dụ:

Scarcely had I got out of bed when the doorbell rang. (Hiếm khi chuông cửa reo mà tôi thức dậy)

No sooner had he finished dinner than she walked in the door. (Khi anh ấy vừa mới ăn tối xong thì chị ta bước vào cửa).

 

  1. 2. Nhóm từ kết hợp sau “only” như: only after, only then, only when…Only after/only when/only then/only if + trợ động từ + S + V…: chỉ sau khi…. Only by + noun/V-ing + trợ động từ/ động từ khuyết thiếu + S + V….: chỉ bằng cách làm gì

Only then did I understand the problem.

(Chỉ sau lúc đó tôi mới hiểu ra được vấn đề).

Only by hard work will we be able to accomplish this great task. Only by studying hard can you pass this exam.

Chú ý: nếu trong câu có hai mệnh đề, chúng ta dùng đảo ngữ ở mệnh đề thứ hai: Only when you grow up, can you understand it.

Only if you tell me the truth, can I forgive you.

Only after the film started did I realise that I’d seen it before.

  1. Nhóm từ “so, such”
  2. So + adj : Trong mẫu câu trạng từ chỉ kết quả

eg; She is so rich that she can buy what she likes

Đảo “so + adj” lên đầu câu ==> So rich is she that……………….

  1. So + adv that…………. : Mệnh đề trạng ngữ kết quả sau trạng từ

Đảo “ so to+ adv” lên đầu câu

eg: He worked so hard in the past that he is now weak

==> So hard did he work in the past that…….

 

  1. Câu có sử dụng “such” thường gặp các dạng:
  2. a) Trong câu có dùng “ so great, so much” biến đổi “ so great, so much”==> “ such” đảo lên đầu câu để nhấn mạnh

eg; The question was so great that he had to think it over

==> Such was the question……………

b)Trong câu có dùng “such”

S + tobe+ such+ that+ mệnh đề

Đảo “such” lên đầu câu để nhấn mạnh

eg: She is so poor that she can’t go school
Her poverty is such that……..
==>Such is her poverty that……..

 

  1. 4. Cấu trúc câu “not only…but also….”

Not only + trợ động từ + S +V + but also + S + V…

Ví dụ:

Not only does he study well, but also he sings well.

 

  1. Đảo từ với câu điều kiện:
    5.1. Đảo từ với câu điều kiện loại 1
    a) Câu điều kiện loại 1 có sử dụng “ should” thay hiện tại không xác định chỉ khả năng xáy ra ít hơn ở tương lai. Đảo “should” lên đầu câu thay “If”
    Eg: If it should rain tonight, I will stay at home
    ==> Should it rain……….
    b) Điều kiện loại 1 có sử dụng thời hiện tại hoàn thành
    Lấy “should” thay “If” sao đó để nguyên thể hoàn thành với “have done” ở tất cả các ngôi
    Eg: If she has finished the work, she can go home
    ==> Should she have finished ……….

5.2. Điều kiện loại 2
a) Mệnh đề điều kiện loại 2 có dùng động từ “tobe” ở số nhiều “were” dùng “were” thay”if”
Eg: Iif I were you, i would love him
==> Were I you……………..
b) Trong mẫu câu điều kiện loại 2 đặc biệt có dùng “If” đầu câu ( nếu không phải vì…………… “were” khỏi “not’’sau đó đảo lên đầu câu thay “if”)
Eg: If it weren’t for your progress, i wouldn’t be here
==> Were it not your ….
c) Mẫu câu điều kiện loại 3 đặc biệt
If + S+ were+ to do
Thay động từ ở quá khứ của mệnh đề điêu kiện loại 2
Eg: If i were to speak…….
==> Với mẫu câu này đảo “were” lên đầu câu thay “If”

5.3. Điều kiện loại 3
a) Dùng “Had” đảo lên đầu câu thay “If”
Eg: If she had worked harder last year, she wouldn’t have failed the exam
==> Had she worked harder last year…………
b) Câu điều kiện loại 3 đặc biệt đi với đại từ “it” đầu câu
If it hadn’t been for + N ==> Nếu không phải vì…….
==> Tách “had” ra khỏi “not” đảo lên đầu câu thay “If”
Eg: If it hadn’t been for hot weather,we would have had a wonderful holiday
==> Had it not been for……………………….
c) Mệnh để điều kiện loại 3 đặc biệt có sử dụng” were to have done” thay quá khứ hoàn thành
Eg; If she had driven carefully, she wouldn’t have cause the accident
==> If she were to have driven……
Đảo “were” lên đầu câu thay “If”
==> Were she to have driven

 

  1. 6. Một số cấu trúc khác

In/ Under no circumstances: Dù trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không

Under no circumstances should you lend him the money.

On no account: Dù bất cứ lý do gì cũng không

On no accout must this switch be touched.

Only in this way: Chỉ bằng cách này

Only in this way could the problem be solved

In no way: Không sao có thể

In no way could I agree with you.

By no means: Hoàn toàn không

By no means does he intend to criticize your idea.

Negative …, nor + auxiliary + S + V

He had no money, nor did he know anybody from whom he could borrow.

Khi một mệnh đề mở đầu bằng các thành ngữ chỉ nơi chốn hoặc trật tự thì động từ chính có thể đảo lên chủ ngữ nhưng tuyệt đối không được sử

dụng trợ động từ trong trường hợp này.

Clause of place/ order + main verb + S (no auxiliary)

In front of the museum is a statue.

First came the ambulance, then came the police.

(Thoạt đầu là xe cứu thương chạy đến, tiếp sau là cảnh sát.)

Khi một ngữ giới từ làm phó từ chỉ địa điểm hoặc phương hướng đứng ở đầu câu, các nội động từ đặt lên trước chủ ngữ nhưng tuyệt đối không được sử dụng trợ động từ trong loại câu này. Nó rất phổ biến trong văn mô tả khi muốn diễn đạt một chủ ngữ không xác định:

Under the tree was lying one of the biggest men I had ever seen. Directly in front of them stood a great castle.

On the grass sat an enormous frog.

Along the road came a strange procession.

Tân ngữ mang tính nhấn mạnh cũng có thể đảo lên đầu câu:

Not a single word did he say.

 

 

EXERCISES

  1. Choose the most suitable words .
  2. Jim promised that he would never/ never would he tell anyone else.
  3. Not until it was too late I remembered / did I remember I call Susan.
  4. Hardly had we settle down in our seats than/when the lights went out.
  5. Only after checking three times I was/was I certain of the answer.
  6. At no time I was aware/was I aware of anything out of usual.
  7. Only Mary sang Sally passed/ did they pass the final examination.
  8. So the waves were high/ So high were the waves that swimming was dangerous.
  9. Only when Peter has arrived / has Peter arrived can we begin the program.
  10. No sooner had it stopped raining than/when the sun came out.
  11. If should you leave early/ should you leave early could you leave me a lift?

 

  1. Rewrite these sentences, using NEVER.
  2. She has never been so happy before.

……………………………………………………………………………

  1. I have never heard such nonsense!

………………………………………………………………………

  1. I have never seen such a mess in my life.

………………………………………………………………………

  1. Our profits this year are higher than they have ever been.

…………………………………………………………………………

  1. She would never again trust her own judgment when buying antiques.

……………………………………………………………………………

  1. The firm has never before laid on such a sumptuous celebration.

…………………………………………………………………………

  1. I’ve never come across such a horrifying film.

………………………………………………………………………

  1. I have never been so moved by a Shakespeare production.

…………………………………………………………………………

  1. I never for one moment thought the consequences would be so far- reaching.

………………………………………………………………………

  1. I had never tasted such a wonderful combination of flavors before.

………………………………………………………………………

 

III. Rewrite these sentences, using IN, AT , UNDER, or ON.

  1. Keith certainly can’t be held responsible for the accident.

……………………………………………………..…………………………

  1. The children themselves are not in any way to blame for the disaster.

…………………………………………………..…………………………

3.The existence of extraterrestrial is not confirmed by the report.

…………………………………………..……………………………………

  1. I was never shown how to operate the machinery.

……………………………………………….………………………………

  1. He never suspected that she was a witch.

………………………………………………….……………………………

  1. There has never been a time when the English language was not in a state of change.

……………………………………………….………………………………

  1. Miss Weaver will not be offered the job under any circumstances.

………………………………………………..………………………………

  1. You should not send money to us by post under any circumstances.

……………………………………………..…………………………………

9.We can’t exchange tickets in any circumstances.

……………………………………….………………………………………

10.I won’t go out that way to visit him again on my account!

……………………………………..…………………………………………

 

  1. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with NOT.
  2. He is my friend as well as yours.

……………………………………….………………………………………

  1. He booked tickets for the afternoon performance and the evening performance as well.

………………………………………………………………………………

  1. Burglars stole a thousand pounds’ worth of electrical goods, and left the flat in an awful mess.

……………………………………..…………………………………………

  1. Tony was not only late, but he had left all his books behind.

………………………………………………………………………

  1. You will enhance your posture and improve your acting ability on this course.

………………………………………………………………………………

  1. It isn’t worth considering his suggestion for a moment.

…………………………………………….…………………………………

  1. She didn’t shed a tear when the story ended in tragedy.

………………………………………….……………………………………

  1. The manager not once offered us an apology.

……………………………………….………………………………………

  1. She made no sound as she crept upstairs.

………………………………………………………………………………

10.He only thought about having a holiday abroad after he retired.

………………………………………………………………………………

 

  1. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with ONLY.
  2. I only realized how dangerous the situation had been when I got home.

………………………………………………………………………

  1. It wasn’t until last week that the Agriculture Minister admitted defeat.

………………………………………………………………3. I understood Hamlet only after seeing it on the stage.

………………………………………..………………………………………

  1. They didn’t get round to business until they had finished eating.

………………………………….……………………………………………

  1. They had to wait for twelve hours before their flight left.

………………………….……………………………………………………

  1. I didn’t realize who he was until later.

…………………………………….…………………………………………

  1. The door could not be opened without using force.

………………………………..……………………………………………

  1. I won’t agree until Tom’s apologized.

…………………………………..…………………………………………

  1. To get the 40% discount, you must buy all twelve books at the same time.

………………………………………………………………………

10.The only way you can become a good athlete is by training hard every day.

……………………………….……………………………………………

  1. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with SHOULD.
  2. If the Government were forced into another election, it would be the favourite to win.

……………………………………………………………..…………………

  1. If you should wish to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is available between 9.00 and 11.00.

…………………………………..……………………………………………

  1. If you should have further problems with your printer, contact your dealer for advice.

………………………………………………………………………

  1. If you should decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1st April.

……………………………..…………………………………………………

  1. If we hear any further news, we will be in touch immediately.

………………………………………………………………………………..

  1. If you wish to take advantage of the offer, kindly tick the box on your order form.

………………………..………………………………………………………

  1. If the film should be a post office success, they may be sequel.

…………………….…………………………………………………………

  1. If you should change your mind, there will always be a job for you here.

………………………………………………………………………

 

VII. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with WERE OR HAD

  1. If the chemical were to leak, a large area of the sea would be contaminated.

………………………………..………………………………………………

  1. If Germany were to beat Romania, they would face Italy in the final.

……………………………..…………………………………………………

  1. If Mr Morgan were still head master, he would not permit such bad behavior.

………………………………………………………………………………

  1. If you had given it on time, you would have got a high mark.

………………………………..………………………………………………

  1. If she had become a lawyer, as her parents wished, she would have earn a large salary.

………………………………………………………………………………

  1. If anything has gone wrong with my plan, I would have held responsibility.

………………………………..………………………………………………

7.If it hadn’t been for Henry,I might not have met you.

…………………………………..……………………………………………

  1. If only they had confirmed by phone, the airline could have warned them.

………………………………………………………………………………

  1. The coast guards could have saved the vessels if they had been notified.

………………………………..………………………………………………

  1. If his solicitor hadn’t advised him, he would have made a serious mistake.

……………………………………………..…………………………………

VIII.  Rewrite each of the following sentences with the given words in such a way that it means the same as the sentence printed above it.

  1. He spent all his money. He even borrowed some from me.

“Not only________________________________________________

  1. He had hardly left the office when the telephone rang.

” No sooner ______________________________________________

  1. I had only just put the phone down when the boss rang back.

” Hardly _________________________________________________

  1. He didn’t finish his work until the bell rang.

” Not until ______________________________________________

  1. We only began to see the symptoms of the disease after several months.

” Only ________________________________________________

  1. I have never seen anyone in my life drink as much as you.

” Never ___________________________________________

  1. A sleeping dog was lying under the table.

” Under the table _________________________________________________

  1. His brother had rarely been more excited.

“Rarely_____________________________________________

  1. The facts were not all made public until later.

“Only_______________________________________________

  1. If I had realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job.

“Had______________________________________________

  1. The response to our appeal was so great that we has to take on more staff.

” Such______________________________

  1. Harry broke his leg, and also injured his shoulder.

“Not only ____________________________________

  1. The police didn’t at all suspect that the judge was the murderer.

” Little ___________________________________________

  1. If you do happen to see Helen, could you ask her to call me?

“Should_________________________________________

  1. The bus driver can not be blamed for the accident in any way.

” In __________________________________________________

 

 

 

KEYS

  1. Choose the most suitable words underlined.
  2. he would never 6.       passed
  3. did I remember 7.  so high were the waves
  4. when 8.  Peter has arrived
  5. was I 9.  than
  6. was I aware 10.    should you leave early
  7. Rewrite these sentences, using NEVER.
  8. Never before had she been so happy.
  9. Never have I heard such nonsense!
  10. Never in my life have I seen such a mess.
  11. Never have our profits been higher than/ as higher as they are this year.
  12. Never again would she trust her own judgment when buying antique.
  13. Never before had the firm laid on such a sumptuous celebration.
  14. Never have I come across such a horrifying film.
  15. Never have I been so moved by a Shakespeare production.
  16. Never for one moment did I think the consequences would be so far reaching.
  17. Never before had I tasted such a wonderful combination of flavours.

 

III. Rewrite these sentences, using IN, AT, UNDER, or ON

  1. In no way can Keith be held responsible for the accident.
  2. In no way are the children themselves to blame for the disaster.
  3. In no way is the existence of extraterrestrial life confirmed by the report.
  4. At no time was I shown how to operate the machine.
  5. At no time did he suspect that he was a witch.
  6. At no time has the English language not been in a state of change.
  7. Under no circumstance will Miss Weaver be offered the job.
  8. Under no circumstance should you send money to us by post.
  9. Under no circumstance can we exchange tickets.
  10. On any account will I go all that way to visit him again.
  11. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with NOT
  12. Not only is he your friend, but he’s mine too.
  13. Not only did he book tickets for the afternoon performance but he also booked for the evening performance as well.
  14. Not only did the burglars steal a thousand pounds’ worth of electrical goods, they also left the flat in an awful mess.
  15. Not only was Tom late, but he had left all his books behind.
  16. Not only will you enhance your posture but you will (also) improve your acting ability (as well) on this course.
  17. Not for one moment is it worth considering his suggestion /is his suggestion worth considering.
  18. Not a tear did she shed when the story ended in tragedy.
  19. Not once did the manager offer is an apology.
  20. Not a sound did she make as she crept upstairs.
  21. Not until he retired did he think about having a holiday abroad.
  22. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with ONLY
  23. Only when I got home did I realize how dangerous the situation had been.
  24. Only last week did the Agriculture Minister admit defeat.
  25. Only after seeing Hamlet on the stage did I understand it.
  26. Only after they had finished eating did they get round to business.
  27. Only after they waited for twelve hours did their flight leave.
  28. Only after did I realize who she was.
  29. Only by (using) force could the door be opened.
  30. Only when Tom’s apologized will I agree.
  31. Only when you buy all twelve books at the same time can/will you get the 40% discount.
  32. Only by training hard can/will/could you become a good athlete.

 

  1. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with SHOULD.
  2. Should the government be forces into another election, it would be the favorite to win.
  3. Should you wish to make an appointment to see Dr Simons, she is available between 9.00 and 11.00.
  4. Should you have further problems with your printer, contact your deal for advice.
  5. Should you decide to accept the post, you will be expected to start work on 1st
  6. Should we hear any further news, we will be in touch immediately.
  7. Should you wish to take advantage of the offer, kindly tick the box on your order.
  8. Should the film be a box- office success, they may be a sequel.
  9. Should you change your mind, there will always be a job for you here.

 

VII. Rewrite these sentences, using inversion with WERE or HAD

  1. Were the chemical to leak, a large area of sea would be contaminated.
  2. Were Germany to beat, they would face Italy in the final.
  3. Were Mr Morgan still headmaster, he would not permit such bad behavior.
  4. Had you given it in on time, you would have got a high mark.
  5. Had she become a lawyer, as her parents’ wishes, she would have earned a large salary.
  6. Had anything gone wrong, I would have been held responsible.
  7. Had it not been for Henry, I might not have met you.
  8. Had the coast guards been notified they could have saved the vessels.
  9. Had they confirmed by phone, the airline could have warned them.
  10. Had it not been for his solicitor’s advice, he would have made a serious mistake.

VIII.  Rewrite each of the following sentences with the given words in such a way that it means the same as the sentence printed above it.

  1. Not only did he spend all his money but she also borrowed some from me.
  2. No sooner had I left the office than the phone rang.
  3. Hardly had I put the phone down when the boss rang back.
  4. Not until the bell rang did he finish his work.
  5. Only after several months did we begin to see the symptoms of the disease.
  6. Never in my life have seen anyone drink as much as you.
  7. Under the table was lying a sleeping dog.
  8. Rarely had his brother been more excited.
  9. Only later were all the facts made public.
  10. Had I realized what would happen, I wouldn’t have accepted the job.
  11. Such was the responsible to our appeal  that we has to take on more staff
  12. Not only did Harry break his leg but he also injured his shoulder.
  13. Little did the police suspect that the judgment was the murderer.
  14. Should you see Helen, could you ask her to call me?
  15. In no way can the bus be blamed for the accident.

 

III.KẾT LUẬN

Trên đây là các dạng đảo ngữ cơ bản thường hay xuất hiện trong các dạng bài tập về câu đảo ngữ. Cấu trúc của đảo ngữ khá đơn giản vì nó giống với cấu trúc của câu nghi vấn ( chỉ khác là không thêm dấu hỏi lúc kết câu) Vì số lượng các dạng đảo ngữ là khá lớn nên chúng ta không nên học thuộc lòng các dạng này một cách nhồi nhét. Thay vào đó có thể nhìn vào từng dạng và tự nghĩ một ví dụ liên quan tới mình, một ví dụ điển hình để dễ nhớ. Điều này rất cần thiết để giúp chúng ta, bởi vì chỉ cần nhìn một cấu trúc và liên tưởng đến ví dụ ấy là đã có thể hiểu ra rồi. Ngoài ra, chúng ta phải thực hành nhiều và làm nhiều bài tập hơn để nắm rõ về các dạng bài tập.Với nội dung chuyên đề này chắc chắn sẽ chưa đầy đủ rất mong sự đóng góp của các đồng nghiệp để chuyên đề được hoàn thiện hơn.Tôi xin chân thành cảm ơn.